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Sarah D. Shields

Fezzes in the River: Identity Politics and European Diplomacy in the Middle East on the Eve of World War II ***

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Self-determination, imported into the Middle East on the heels of World War I, held out the promise of democratic governance to the former territories of the Ottoman Empire. The new states that European Great Powers carved out of the multilingual, multiethnic, and multireligious empire were expected to adhere to new forms of affiliation that emphasized previously unimportant differences.

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